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With this term we mean the disturbance, at which one or more phonemes or combinations of phonemes of each individual's maternal language, cannot be shaped correctly, are replaced by other phoneme or in other cases are even absent from his speech.

The shaping of phoneme has two dimensions. The phonetics and phonologics. Therefore in extension we are talking about phonetic and phonologic disturbances. Phonetic disturbances occur, when the problem of dysfunctional speech is clearly located in the weakness of shaping the phoneme, because of immaturity, bad-shaping or wounded articulated body, because of insufficient linguistic motivation from the direct familial circle, because of genetics as in hearing problem or because of some kind of disturbance of the central neural system. So the problem is clearly kinetic. On the contrary, in the phonological disturbance, the problem is perceptive.

Although the individual is able to vocalize the controversial phoneme, he cannot, however, recognise those small differences from another phoneme, which share's some common characteristics. For example, it is difficult to differentiate between the words "gala" and "gata".

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